Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide

This page contains educational material about Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome due to water damaged building (CIRS). This is a biotoxin illness is that is caused by mold. Other biotoxin illnesses have similar signs and symptoms. They are also treated similarly. Some of them are discussed on this site. This information is for educational purposes only. Nothing in this text is intended to serve as medical advice. All medical decisions should be made only with the guidance of your own personal medical authority. I am doing my best to get this data up quickly and correctly. If you find errors in this data, please let me know.

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Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is a substance found throughout the body. The highest levels are normally found in the nervous system and gut. It is considered to be a neuroendocrine peptide.

VIP, is a 28-amino acid (aa) peptide that acts as a neuroendocrine hormone, putative neurotransmitter and cytokine. The presence of VIP and specific VIP binding sites in defined pathways in the brain indicate that it may play an important role in central nervous system (CNS) function. VIP is now widely accepted as a co-transmitter, with nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, of nonadrenergic, noncholinergic relaxation of both vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle. VIP may also promote neuronal survival and regulate glycogen metabolism in the cerebral cortex. VIP stimulates prolactin secretion from the pituitary and catecholamine release from the adrenal medulla. In the immune system, VIP regulates T cell traffic and inhibits mitogen-activated proliferation of T cells by inhibiting interleukin-2 production. Other actions of VIP include stimulation of electrolyte secretion and protection against oxidant injury.

VIP is also thought to play a role in neurodevelopment and in neuroprotection following injury to the CNS. NAP (davunetide), an active fragment of the VIP-inducted neuroprotective protein ADNP (activity-dependent neuroprotective protein) is in clinical development for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

This neuroendocrine peptide is distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in peripheral tissues, such as various areas of rhe skin. It is a nueromodulator and neurotransmitter.

People with Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome due to water-damaged building (CIRS) often have skin aflictions: VIP is released from autonomic and sensory nerve fibres in the skin. VIP-containing nerve fibres as well as VIP receptors have been identified in the skin. VIP released from nerve endings in the epidermis (outer skin layer) binds to its receptor on skin cells called keratinocytes, thereby modulating their function.

VIP and the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) play diverse and important roles in the CNS, with functions in the control of circadian rhythms, learning and memory, anxiety and responses to stress and brain injury. VIP and PACAP play important roles in the control of immunity and inflammation, the control of pancreatic insulin secretion, the release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla and as co-transmitters in autonomic and sensory neurons.

VIP is now widely accepted as a co-transmitter, with nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, of nonadrenergic, noncholinergic relaxation of both vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle (Said and Rattan, 2004) and with acetylcholine in exocrine glands (Fahrenkrug, 1993) VIP may also promote neuronal survival (Brenneman and Eiden, 1986) and regulate glycogen metabolism in the cerebral cortex (Sorg and Magistretti, 1992). VIP stimulates prolactin secretion from the pituitary (Reichlin, 1988) and catecholamine release from the adrenal medulla (Malhotra et al., 1988). In the immune system, VIP regulates T cell traffic and inhibits mitogen-activated proliferation of T cells by inhibiting IL-2 production (Ottaway, 1987). Other actions of VIP include stimulation of electrolyte secretion and protection against oxidant injury (Gozes and Brenneman, 1989; Said, 1991; 1996).

Receptors effected strongly by VIP are VPAC1 and VPAC2 and to a lesser degree PAC1. The VPAC1 receptor is widely distributed in the CNS, especially in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. It is also in peripheral tissues including the liver, lung and intestine. The receptor is also in T lymphocytes, smooth muscles in the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and reproductive system.

Aviptadil (4-28) is currently being used as an agonist to study VIP receptor activity. Dr. Ritchie Shoemaker has an excellent 1.5 year study showing VIP appears to be safe at the amounts used in the study as well as effective for treating CIRS in the patients who were refractive to prior treatment for CIRS.

Headaches, dizziness, palpitations, and irritability on VIP generally pass quickly.

It is possible that VIP may cause pancreatitis in some cases and therefore lipase levels should be monitored when it is used as a medicine.

There are a variety of pharmacologic agonists that have been created to interact with VIP responsive receptors. The research is extensive.

VIP nasal spray may increase MSH.

VIPs Functions:

Neuroendocrine hormone
Putative neurotransmitter
Cytokine
Mediates vasodilation, lowers arterial blood pressure
Increases cardiac output
Mediates immunomodulation
Mediates mast cell degranulation
It helps control or send nerve signals
It helps relax certain muscles along the gastrointestinal tract
Increases glycogenolysis
It helps relax bronchioles, smooth muscle of trachea, stomach and gall bladder.
It increases the amount of water and electrolytes released from the pancreas and gut
It triggers the release of hormones from the pancreas, gut, and hypothalamus
It helps break down fat and glycogen
It stimulates bile flow
It blocks gastrin, and gastric acid

Gene ID: 7432, updated on 29-Oct-2014, Also Known As: PHM27 The protein encoded by this gene (VIP) belongs to the glucagon family. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. GENE ID LINK

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